SPEAK and TALK both generally mean "say words", but there are some small differences in how they are used. In general, "speak" is more formal than "talk". You speak to an audience and talk to yourself. You speak intelligently and talk nonsense. Blab, blab, blab. 

"I need to speak to you." (Formal. With a boss/colleague/acquaintance, etc)

 It is possible that:

– the speaker does not know you very well.
– this is in a formal setting, such as work.
– what the person has to say is important/serious.

"I need to talk to you." (Informal. We need to have a little talk)

 It is possible that:

– the speaker is your friend.
– the speaker is someone you don't know very well, but what they have to say is informal. 

"I would like to speak." (listen to me)
"I would like to talk." (I will listen to you) 

We usually use "speak" for more formal presentations and lectures, and "talk" for more informal ones.

"Dr Graham Foster will speak about the history of the region."
"Kyle is going to talk us through the benefits of the software and then Liz will talk about the marketing plan."

"Speak" is often used for one-way communication and for exchanges in more serious or formal situations.

"They're not speaking to one another."
"After she had finished reading the letter, nobody spoke." 

"Speak" usually only focuses on the person who is producing the words. "Talk" focuses on a speaker and at least one listener, and can mean have a conversation.

"He spoke about the importance of taking exercise and having a good diet."
"I hope I can meet you to talk about my plans for the company."

When we refer to languages, we use "speak".

"I wish I could speak Italian."

We use "speak" on the telephone. Who is speaking? (Question) Who is talking! (Not a question!) 

A: "Is Rita there?" B: "Who's speaking?"

One also usually asks to speak to somebody on the phone (US also "speak with"). 

"Hello, can I speak to Laura, please?"

In BrE, speakers tend to use "speak/talk to". In more formal situations, people sometimes use "with".

"I need to speak to you about this conference next week."
"May I speak with you for a moment?" (rather formal)

Martin Parrott argues that "speak to" is standard BrE, whereas "speak with" has been stigmatized as a lower-class variant. That said, "speak/talk with" is certainly not unheard of in Britain, though those forms are much less often used than in the US.

"In the UK, I had 'speak with' corrected at work as an error of language."

In AmE, in most cases you will be right no matter which one you choose. 

"Jack, can I talk to/with you for a moment?" (I have a problem, and I want to bounce it off you)

However, many users feel that "speak with" is a conversation of equals and "speak to" is not appropriate for a friendly conversation as it suggests the speaker is in a position of authority e.g. a teacher or parent speaking to a naughty child. 

Teacher: "I want to speak to you after class." (you recoil in panic)

You speak to a group (more or less one way) and talk with a person. "Address" is always a possible substitution for "speak to," but not for "speak with."

"The president spoke to the people."
"The author spoke to a packed auditorium."

Many users would say "speak to" meaning to speak to someone about a very particular topic. 

"I would like to speak to Andrew about his project." (inform him of my opinions)
"I would like to speak with Andrew about his project." (implies a more open conversation)

Can you think of any more nuances here?
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